Saturday, February 22, 2020

Definition of Marketing and Nutritional Supplements Assignment

Definition of Marketing and Nutritional Supplements - Assignment Example As a management process, it believe that it must incorporate the 4ps where the organization initiate a new product, sets the price, ensure that it is in the right place to a certain channel of distribution, and familiarization is enhanced through the right promotional techniques. Therefore, I can generalize and argue from a philosophical perspective that the entire process of marketing is social process in nature for it involves taking action to meet clients’ needs and realize organizational goals of increased sales through an exchange of products and customer’s value. To discuss marketing from my point of view, I will consider GNLD, a nutritional supplement company in the U.S. Nutritional supplements have increased tremendously due to the increased importance of essential vitamins and minerals that lack in people’s body. These important are not available in the normal diets. However, the increase in the Nutritional Supplements selling companies has increased havoc since medical practitioners have noted with concern that some of these companies are money making since their productions are not regulated increasing controversy surrounding the products. However, GNLD is an example of such a company, which for over 50 years has ensured good health to millions of people. Its purpose is ideally to empower individuals with essential knowledge and through their scientifically proven products realize long life health. The history of this company is unique. The founder, Jerry Brassfield, introduced this company at a very young age when he realized that quality supplements played a profound impact in restoration of people health. This was after his life was sa ved by his mother who healed his long allergy and asthma through addition of nutritional products in his food. Since the introduction of the company, it has achieved national and international success hence through the founder; the company

Wednesday, February 5, 2020

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder - Research Paper Example Another population that is showing emerging increase in PTSD is fire-fighters. More and more cases of major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are coming to light, making it important for understanding of the conditions and therefore development of effective treatments. Feczer and Bjorklund (2009) define PTSD as â€Å" an anxiety disorder characterized by a triad of symptoms following exposure or trauma, including persistent re-experiencing of the traumatic stressors through flashbacks, nightmares, and/or intrusive thoughts, avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma along with the numbing or general unresponsiveness; and persistent symptoms of increased arousal† (p.278). PTSD is classified as an anxiety disorder since although anxiety has many of the symptoms and signs of fear, it also lingers long after the event and the threat associated with it have passed. This is perhaps the most unique characteristic of PTSD. Vieweg et al (2006) follow the development of the definition. In 1980 the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders first described PTSD as an anxiety disorder. In a later revision in 1987 the diagnostic criteria were revised to emphasize the avoidance phenomenon and in the 1994 edition traum a was redefined. The definition of trauma is important to the understanding of how it is applied to PTSD. Grant et al (2008) define a trauma as â€Å"an event involving actual or threatened loss of life or personal integrity such that one experiences extreme fear, helplessness or horror† (p.662). The American Psychiatric Association expands the explanation of the traumatic event saying that it must involve actual or threatened death or serious injury of a threat to one’s physical being. Witnessing the actual death or threat to another’s

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Marriage Between The Prophet Hosea And Gomer Religion Essay

Marriage Between The Prophet Hosea And Gomer Religion Essay At the centre of the Hebrew Bible in the book of Hosea chapters one and three, lays a controversy about the marriage between the prophet Hosea and Gomer the harlot. But Hosea 3:1 seems to be an interpretation of Hosea 1: 2. Taking these passages as historically true may defeat the nature of the righteousness of God. Moreover, the name, Gomer, also seems to be not historically true because of its being both a masculine and feminine. Therefore the narratives may not be a real historical reflection of the marital unfaithfulness but it may have meant to convey the message of Yahweh. The discussion of this subject will therefore, include; who was Hosea, who was Gomer, the metaphor for the unfaithful marriage and then conclusion. HOSEA: Hosea (Hoshea-saviour) was an eighth century prophet -a mouthpiece of Yahweh. He prophesied in the Northern Kingdom, which was under King Jeroboam II (Hosea 1: 1). The reign of Jeroboam was characterized by material prosperity but it was morally reeking and rotten due to idolatry as attested in Hosae 4:2 and 2 Kings 14: 23-29 (Halley, 1957: 321). Israel had committed great harlotry by forsaking the Lord (Hosea1: 2). The great sin that Israel had committed, compelled God to command Hosea to demonstrate it through his personal life. Hosea, a prophet and a staunch patriot of Yahwhism, received the message from Yahweh. The prophet was commanded to go and marry Gomer, a prostitute (Hosea 1:2). The marriage between the prophet and a prostitute is surrounded by controversies as recorded in Hosea chapters One and Three. The controversies include the doubtful possibility of Yahweh to expose Yahwehs prophet to a prostitute. However, scholars have said that the drama between Hosea and Gomer is a metaphor that demonstrates the unconditional love of God for Israel and humanity at large. The message was complex as Hosea spoke both of disaster and hope for restoration. By disaster he warned that the Assyrians would come to invade them. The demonstration involves the unfaithful marital drama between Hosea and Gomer his wife. This is seen in Hosea 1:2 and 3:1-2 where God commands Hosea to marry a prostitute and he repeated the command saying go again and love a prostitute. From these two texts, Gomer is seen as a prostitute before marrying Hosea. And she continued being unfaithful to her husband to the extent of defecting him for other men. Speculatively, the harlot in chapter three whom God commanded Hosea to marry again may be Gomer though the Bible does not mention the name Gomer. GOMER: The name seems to be masculine (Genesis 10: 2), but Hosea depicts it as a feminine name. Gomer was the wife of Hosea. She had three children and only the first-born is portrayed as a legitimate child of Hosea. The other two children were born out of wed log. The scripture records that Gomer left her husband-Hosea for other men. Therefore, the Bible depicts Gomer as a prostitute. Therefore, it is vital that the type of prostitution she indulged in is stressed precisely from scholarly point of view. Scholars have interpreted the first three chapters of Hosea in different ways (Hinson, 1992: 168). However, James Hastings suggests that Gomer was a temple prostitute (Hastings 1963: 398). This type of prostitution was common in Canaan as Werner Keller puts it; In Canaan in those days the cult of sensuality was regarded as the worship of the gods, temple took the place of brothels, men and women prostitutes ranked as sacred to the followers of the religion, their rewards for their services went into the temple treasuries as an offering for the god (Keller, 1956: 262). From this understanding, it is possible to conclude that Gomer could have been a temple prostitutes as Hastings puts it, Gomer was, before marriage, a temple prostitute (Hastings, 1963: 398). Further, it is uncertain that Yahweh, who is worthy, could allow his prophet to marry a prostitute. Prostitutes or adulterous women were deserved to be stoned to death and not to be take back to their marital homes (Psalm 85; Deuteronomy 22:20). Nevertheless, it has been the nature of God to reveal His plan in both words and actions as seen in Isaiah 20:1-6 and in Jeremiah 28:10f. Therefore, the metaphor could mean that Yahweh was transmitting his message through this drama. THE METAPHOR FOR THE UNFAITHFUL MARRIAGE: In this drama, Hosea is the representation of God who loves both the righteous and the sinner but hates sin. Gomer represent the Israelites who became broke the covenant made between them and God. The names of their children signify the attitude that God had developed against Israel due to idolatry (Hosea 1:4, 6, 9). Meanings of the names; The names of the children born in this unfaithful marriage show that the time of God (kairos) to punish Israel had come (Jezreel). Lo-ruhamah meant that God had no longer mercy for Israelites and Lo-ammi meant that Israel had rejected God. But later, Yahweh changed His mind and decided to forgive Israel (Halley, 1957: 317) as demonstrated by Hosea who redeemed his wife from playing harlotry. Hosea also is depicted as having accepted to keep the two illegitimate children. This shows how inclusive the love of God is. Hoseas attitude towards Gomer; Though with great pain and love of losing her in such a dramatic way, Hosea followed, called and redeemed his wife to himself. This is the exactly picture of God who is constantly mindful of human kind as portrayed in Psalm 8: 4. This is also depicted in the incarnation of Christ in the dispensation of salvation for humanity. As Hosea redeemed his wife, so is God ready to redeem humanity from any apostasy life as well as the bondage of sin despite being sinful (Romans 5: 8). In this view, the marital unfaithfulness represents how Israel became unfaithful to God by broking the Sinai covenant that was made between them and God as seen below. Defection and restoration of the covenant; The drama was the reminder to the Israelites that they were a holy nation. They were unique by having entered a relationship with God through a Sinai covenant. John Miller states that God, in the wilderness, initiated the covenant after the Israelites escape from Egypt. God showed the tender love for Israel. And this love is likened to the love for an infant who is dearly loved by the parent (Miller, 1987: 80). In this exclusive covenant, Israel is seen as a wife while Yahweh is the husband (Hastings, 1963:506). But Israel broke this covenant and became unfaithful to God by indulging in idolatry. This departure from worshipping Yahweh to other gods is likened to prostitution, which was rampant in temples (Miller, 1987:82). And of course sexual activity is a natural pattern of humanity. From this explanation, sacred prostitution implanted a belief of increasing prosperity and fertility, for example, agricultural product, as Israelites were an agrarian people. They depended on agriculture. Therefore they could not avoid adopting worshipping of Baal; a fertility god as Israel pursued material goods from other gods (Hastings, 1963:506). Attached to this worship was the belief concerning the cycle of growth and decay, birth and death and success in war. But in Canaan, they were openly shameless such that mother goddesses were branded as whores. (Keller, 1956: 262-263). This worship was connected to everyday life to ensure that by having sex in the temple; success was certain. As sex was performed in the temple, the god of fertility was impregnating the earth for farms to have good produce and success in trade. This is seen in how trade was conducted as goods probably food was sold by the rich to foreigners like Tyre; neglecting the fellow poor Israelites who could have worked for it. The seller-buyer relationship is also viewed as prostitution. These were the activities that penetrated Yahwism. And it was at this that the prophets were raged with patriotism zeal to fight the survival of Yahwism. The metaphor also refers to alliances with other nations on political basis. These alliances are likened to lovers whom Isaiah condemned. These foreign alliances brought idolatry into Israelites faith. Thus the depiction of Israels unfaithfulness to God (Jeremiah 2:18, 36-37; Hosea 5:13; 7:11-12). That is the breaking of covenant or the seal of salvation. As seen in this way, Israel committed adultery by being idolatry. Israel also followed the gods of violence, assassination and injustice. They totally rejected the precepts of Yahweh as stipulated in the Decalogue- Ten commandments (Hosea 4:2). Miller also points out thatWhen the austere worshippers of Yahweh entered Canaan from the wilderness of Sinai and first encountered such practices at Baal Peor, they were both shocked and intriguedà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦. numbers 25: Hosea 9:10 (Miller, 1987:82). Miller clearly states that Israel was a monotheistic nation. But the influence of the Canaanites swayed her away from Yahweh like a woman who leaves her only husband for other men. Iam therefore contend with the drama itself that demonstrates how loving Yahweh is. Yet even the changing of the names of Hoseas children from abandonment to embracing from not being my people to being my people is also a good honour to show that God cares. (Halley 1957:317). This shows that there is no slave or free person in the sight of God (Galatians 3). Though the children had no paternal inheritance because they were born out of wed log, they were also given access to inheritance in the house of Hosea. This is how Gods nature is (Hastings, 1963: 506 ). God wants a relationship between Godself and human beings. That is why God instituted the covenantal law to be the cord of bondage in this relationship. But this bondage has been weakened due to sin (Isaiah 59: 2). The sending of Hosea to remarry his wife demonstrates the concern of God for liberation of humanity. On the other hand God is reminding the people to return to God as Revelation 2:4-5a attests. This was the desire of Hose to see the salvation of Israel. He wished that Israel would be reconnected to the covenant. CONCLUSSION: The unfaithful marriage between Gomer and Hosea represents the broken Sinai covenantal relationship between Israel and God. The Sinai covenant was meant to be a practical, functional and a permanent-self definition and self-understanding of Israel as a chosen nation. But they forgot that God had entered into a covenant with them in the wilderness, which was their guide in political, social and religious spheres. Israel lost the morals. This resulted into idolatry, oppression and injustices. They forgot that they were a chosen nation that was required to live an exemplary life to the surrounding nations. It was the neglection of this covenant that God was displeased with the Israelites that his wrath raged against them. Yet, he brings word of compassionate hope for restoration and encouraged Israel to uphold the covenantal law, as Israel was a chosen nation who should have lived exemplary life.

Monday, January 20, 2020

Faulkner Essay -- essays research papers

Stunning Comparison in Faulkner's A Rose for Emily and Barn Burning In the words of Oscar Wilde, "The well-bred contradict other people. The wise contradict themselves." Conflict between the "well-bred" people and their "wise" counterparts satiates William Faulkner's short stories "A Rose for Emily" and "Barn Burning." The inability of Emily Grierson in "A Rose for Emily" and Abner Snopes' father in "Barn Burning" to accept and cope with their changing environments leads to an even greater quarrel with their neighbors; in each of Faulkner's stories, this inability escalates into a horrific murder. "A Rose for Emily" and "Barn Burning" are filled with gross contradictions that make conflict unavoidable. In "A Rose for Emily," different characters hold two opposing views of time itself. The first interpretation of time is that of a "world as present, a mechanical progression" (West 75). The narrator, the new Board of Aldermen, Homer Barron, and the newest generation represent this interpretation. These individuals, holding a new, less restricted point of view, prefer to keep everything set down in books, a practice strongly disapproved of by those who interpret their time as a "world of tradition, divided from us by the most recent decade of years" (West 75). Emily Grierson and her Negro servant, Colonel Sartoris, and the old Board of Aldermen represent this...

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Common Core and the effects on America

Language Learners Since being introduced in 2010, forty-four States have now adopted the Common Core State Standards Initiative. This initiative provides standards in English, Language Arts and Math. Every child in a public school will be expected to meet each standard for their grade level In these areas. These standards are designed to guarantee that every child In America will be on par with each other. They use the example In their 3 minute video about a child In Seattle who has an A In his English class but would be receiving a C in a public school in Chicago(understandingCommon Core). These standards are also designed to insure that American youth are graduating high school with the ability to compete with other nation's graduates worldwide. So not only do American school children need to compete with their national peers but they are also competing on a global level (Common Core). Professor E. D Hirsch In an excerpt from his book â€Å"On Cultural Literacy† discusses h ow cultural literacy is the only way for Impoverished children to rise above their lot In life.Part of his assumptions are that every American child needs a basic foundation, such as the subjects proposed by Common Core, to be provided by the American Education system. Hirsch argues this foundation will ensure every child is culturally literate,†only by accumulation of shared symbols, and the shared information that the symbols represent, can we learn to communicate effectively with one another in our national community† (36). This statement Is based off of the assumption that all Americans speak the same language (Bezel 661). This Is simply no longer true.Between 2010-2011 there were 4. 7 million English Language Learners (ELL) in the American School system (Fast Facts). Unlike No Child left behind act, Common Core acknowledges that they cannot define and meet every need that ELLS have in order to learn the language being used by Common Core on the same level as their p eers (English Standards 6). Without going in-depth into the standards, the most accessible Information on the website Is specific on how to accommodate special needs children, but for ELLS all the standards say Is â€Å"It Is possible for every child to meet the standards†(6).This paper will address the potential effects of Common Core on ELLS, by using the proposed effects of both Common Core supporters and Common Core posers. There is a lack of public information as to how these state standards are going to affect English Language Learners (ELL), there needs to be more focus on how state standards and federal tests are going to accommodate the growing number ELLS. In 2001 the Bush administration Implemented the No Child Left Behind act. (UNCLE). Under Title Ill in UNCLE it was clearly stated how ELLS were to receive special attention.It allowed for extended time on test and occasionally for the test to be administered in the learners own language. These methods were not eff ective cause ELLS were still testing twenty to thirty percent lower than their English proficient peers. UNCLE required schools to break their students Into subgroups one testing in comparison with their English proficient peers. For ELLS the test was not only used to gauge their progress in that particular subject but also their progress in English proficiency.Not surprisingly the ELLS were doing significantly worse on their English and language arts test than on Math and Science. A glaring fault of UNCLE was that once a child began to test on the same level as their English proficient peers hey were removed from the ELL subgroup and expected to keep succeeding without the extra accommodations. These ideas were implemented without there ever being proof they would work. Abide and Tilted finish their 2004 Winter report for CREST with the statement, â€Å"For a goal to be within reach of all schools, at least one school should have already attained it.To date we have yet to see a sc hool with a sizeable ELL population that meets the 2014 UNCLE requirements†. (5) In preparation for the continued rapid growth of the ELL population, which according to a TESTS brief is errantly approximated at 6 million, Common Core broke down English proficiency expectations into four categories (4). An independent study conducted by Stanford defined the four categories are reading, writing, speaking and listening, and language (3,5-7). Reading requirements are designed to make sure students can read and comprehend complex text across all subjects.Writing standards ensure students are prepared to research, analyze and argue. The need for speaking and listening is to ensure that every student has the ability to understand and articulate orally their ideas and arguments and the arguments of others. Finally the language requirement refers to grammar; in the paper the authors students need to understand that English is â€Å"as much a craft as a set of rules†(7). This pap er argues that according to the standards, language will tie the four brackets together (7).The opposition to Common Core is that Common Core will force teachers to teach to the test. Ritual standardized testing increases pressure on students to find the right answer instead of encouraging learning and independent thought (Hawkins). According to New York City teacher Katie Alphas in a letter to Carmen Farina, ELLS articulacy in grades third through eighth are â€Å"encumbered with standardized testing. † Here is a quote from a resignation letter by former Colorado Springs English teacher Pauline Hawkins â€Å"l am supposed to help them think for themselves,†¦ Instead, the emphasis is on Common Core Standards and high stakes testing that is creating a teach to the test mentality for our teachers, and stress and anxiety for our students. † This anxiety is increased when a student is not only being tested on their comprehension of the material but also their comprehe nsion of the English language. The majority of teachers who oppose Common Core want less regular testing and a more diversified way of evaluation. Common Core is moving fast. For most teachers they are being required to rewrite curriculum to match standardized testing, which is binge implemented in some states as early as April 2014.In particular for ELLS in grades third through eighth, who have been in the country for a year or less they are allowed one exemption from a test. After that they are required to test to the level of their English proficient peers. There is an extra time allotment for ELLS UT as Katie Lymphoma states in a blob post titled Battling the High-stakes Testing Beast: from NAPE to NYSE, â€Å"the state has generously offered to give you extended time (time and a half) on the tests; instead of 90 minutes per day for six days (3 days for testing day. That's a total of 13. 5 hours! Hours upon hours of testing for a fifth grader who is working twice as hard to com prehend the test does not seem like the right answer. Lymphoma in the same post discusses how she as their teacher does not have access to the test results only the scores of her students. To summarize searchers are required to conform curriculum to the tests. The same test where they are not allowed to see which material their students failed on. The ELLS are exempt from only one test in the entirety of their schooling. During the testing ELLS could spend up to twelve plus hours a week testing.According to the association of Teaching English to Speaker of Other Languages (TESTS) and an independent Stanford Study, Common Core will present significant challenges to ELLS but will also provide an education that will offer them the same opportunities as their native English speaking peers. When Common Core was first developed English Language Proficiency Development (ELOPED) Standards were left up to the individual states. Starting in 2012 Common Core recognized that a standard for ELOP ED would need to be developed. In 2012 the Council of Chief State Officers produced a basic framework for states to use when adapting their ELL standards.They also hired the Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers and Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium to prepare the assessment test prototypes. According to TESTS on testing â€Å"[the tests will] be administered by computer, both consortia are exploring technology-based accommodations, such as pop up glossaries and captions for audio. To ensure the widest accessibility to the test items† (7). By using measures such as extra glossaries and captions it should take some of the pressure off the students.Common Core firmly states that only by regular standardized tests can teachers and the rest of the education community truly understand what students are learning. The Framework for English Language Proficiency Development Standards corresponding to the Common Core State Standards and the Next Generatio n Science Standards is vividly clear in that they do not force schools to adopt a curriculum. Instead they simply provide what information students are expected to master at every grade. There is no proposed curriculum or any specific standards to guide teachers.The Framework along with Common Core has yet to address what will happen if a child can not meet the standards. UNCLE clearly defined that if a child failed, then the school would be required to use [article title] funding to provide the student the ability to travel to a school where they could get better education. Diana Rancidity in her article with the Washington Post poses the same question what will happen to students who fail. How much funding will go to provide tutoring? What will the repercussions be for teachers whose students are not meeting the standard? Will schools who consistently fail the standards be closed?These are Just some of the many unanswered questions raised by Common Core for ELLS. The Framework ans wered some questions, like which type of questions students are supposed to be able to answer by each grade, what type of thinking process they should have mastered and what kind of tests they should be able to pass. No one on either side of the issue is making light of the extra struggle the ELLS re going to have on top of the rigorous workload of an English proficient student. Those who are pro Common Core firmly state that by going through the Common workforce or further education.Whether that statement is true or not has yet to be seen. Only time and testing will prove whether Common Core is truly beneficial to ELLS. The facts state that there are approximately six million ELLS in the American public school system today. Until we have a working ELL program that has proven results it is counter productive to expect those students to perform well on the Common Core tests. The government is in the awkward middle ground of some of the information being released without enough inform ation to determine whether or not the program's success is even plausible.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Annotated Bibliography Of The Fish Fraud - 1665 Words

Fish Fraud has become increasingly common in fish markets and sushi restaurants where certain species are deliberately swapped for other species to obtain monetary gain (Shokralla, 2015). With the increasing globalization and demand for seafood, the biodiversity of fish species in the market increase as well (Shokralla, 2015). Moreover, a need for proper identification and product composition, apart from morphological characterization has become critical. Unfortunately, consumers are unable to differentiate between species separately from morphological variations. To prevent species fraud, DNA barcoding provides an effective method for precise species identification through comparative sequence analysis in standardized genome fragments.†¦show more content†¦The advantages of the phylogenetic species concept is it doesn’t focus on present characteristics of the organism and applies to all kinds of organisms, including extinct, sexual and asexual organisms (Wheeler, 19 99). The disadvantages is that it is hard to construct a tree with a full certainty of the evolutionary past (Aldhebani, 2017). The phylogenetic species concept is the basis for a new method of species identification called DNA barcoding. DNA barcoding uses standard genetic markers to compare DNA sequences among existing species by scanning for polymorphisms in standard sequences to differentiate between species (Hartvig, 2015). It is effective in differentiating between phenotypically similar species and is applicable to all organisms of life (Dudu, 2016). For DNA barcoding, the DNA is isolated from a sample and standard genetic markers are amplified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). A polymorphism is differences in DNA sequence that accumulate over time (Albert, 2011). The main source of mutations occurs during DNA replication and, thus mutations can be inherited. When the frequency of the mutation increases, it can become fixed in a lineage (Albert, 2011). Polymorphisms can ind icate common ancestry among individuals by comparing standardized sequences across a species (Stoneking, 2001). Specifically, one region in theShow MoreRelatedBehind the Formaldehyde Curtain: Annotated Bibliography2656 Words   |  11 PagesBehind the Formaldehyde Curtain Part A: Annotated Bibliography Colmane, Frankie (2010). Why has it Become Standard Practice in the US to Embalm Our Dead? AlterNet. In this article, Frankie Colmane looks into how dead bodies are treated in the United State even after Mitfords expose of the funeral industry was published. The article takes both a philosophical and scientific issue with the procedure of embalming sighting proven negative effects to human beings and the environment. Colmane shows

Thursday, December 26, 2019

The Recent Engagement Of Contemporary Islamic Thought With...

Serhan Tanriverdi Contemporary Islamic Thought Dr. Ermin Sinanovic Reflection Paper The Recent Engagement of Contemporary Islamic Thought with Modernity in the West Modernization theory has been one of the master theoretical narratives to understand the major institutional and cultural transformation from traditional societies to modern ones. It was developed by the founders of sociology and has dominated the widespread understanding and explanations of many social differentiation processes including rationalization, individualization, urbanization, and secularization for several decades. Thus, sociologists believed that the consequences of modernization were unavoidable route and common destinations and patters for modern or all†¦show more content†¦They suggest that we should re-systematize and correct the classical theory of modernization in the light of multiple modernities frameworks because multiple modernities do not assume that global modernity is derived from the West as a single pattern (source) and describe the possibility of a plural modernity experiences. In fact, there are many modernities, not only one single patter of mo dernization. These developments forced sociologists for a paradigm shift in the dominant one-side understanding of western modernity. In this context, Islam and the discourse of western Muslim intellectuals have gradually gained visibility and significance through the continuing migration and the growth of new generations in the western societies. Western Islam also has emerged in the hearth of modernity; yet did not follow the same patters of classical modernization trends. However, it could not escape the hegemonic influence of modernity. As a result, western Islam is emerging not only as a response to the challenges (premises) of modernity, but also through a ‘transformative dialectical engagement’ with the ethos of modernity, which gradually pave the path towards the rise of Islamic modernism (Islamic modernity) in the west. Hence, the multiple modernities thesis serves as a more adequate theoretical approach than the prevailing modernization, the secularization perspective or many other approaches to